Home Food Allergies Pineapple Allergy: Signs, Cross-Reactivity, Testing, & Therapy

Pineapple Allergy: Signs, Cross-Reactivity, Testing, & Therapy

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Relating to meals allergic reactions and sensitivities, pineapple is without doubt one of the most obscure sorts. It is because a real pineapple allergy is infamous for having cross-reactivity properties with different kinds of meals, making it particularly tough to diagnose and handle.

Whereas pineapple allergic reactions are comparatively uncommon in comparison with different kinds of meals, they will trigger a variety of signs and reactions in affected folks. Consulting an allergist is mostly really helpful for those who suspect you’re allergic to pineapple. 

For extra details about the causes, signs, cross-reactivity, and therapy of pineapple allergy, this text supplies an in-depth take a look at this ominous situation.

What Causes an Allergy to Pineapple?      

One of the crucial widespread allergy-causing substances in pineapples is named bromelain. When somebody with an allergy to pineapple (or different meals with this compound) consumes this fruit, their physique interprets bromelain as a overseas invader and triggers a launch of histamines in an try and battle it off.1 This activation of histamines could cause a bunch of disagreeable allergy signs, together with hives, itching, swelling, issue respiratory, and in some circumstances, anaphylaxis.

Along with bromelain, pineapples additionally include a substance known as profilin. Profilin, which can be recognized to trigger allergic reactions in some folks, is a key mediator of IgE cross-reactivity between unique fruits like pineapple and pollen.2 This explicit agent contributes to the complicated nature of such allergic reactions and is commonly why somebody who’s allergic to pineapples may be triggered by different cross-reactive meals and substances.

Pineapple and Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS)

Pineapple allergic reactions could also be related to Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS). OAS is a novel kind of allergic response that happens when the proteins in sure meals are much like these present in sure pollens.3 When these proteins come into contact with the mucous membranes in your mouth, they will trigger an allergic response.

Signs of OAS are much like most different types of allergy, together with itching, swelling, and tingling within the mouth and throat. In some circumstances, OAS may also trigger gastrointestinal signs reminiscent of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

There are a number of theories explaining why pineapple might overlap with OAS. One principle is that the proteins in pineapple are much like the proteins in pollen, to allow them to set off an allergic response. One other principle is that the enzymes in pineapple (e.g. bromelain) are proteolytic enzymes or proteases that resemble that of sure pollen, thereby triggering allergy signs.

How Frequent Are Pineapple Allergic reactions?

Pineapple allergic reactions are literally fairly uncommon, affecting lower than 1% of the worldwide inhabitants. Nonetheless, those that are allergic to pineapple can expertise extreme and even life-threatening allergic reactions, reminiscent of anaphylaxis or the closing of the throat.

How Lengthy Does an Allergy to Pineapple Final?

Pineapple allergic reactions could cause a spread of signs, some being comparatively gentle and tolerable whereas others might be very extreme and problematic. Typically, pineapple allergy signs will seem inside minutes or hours of publicity to the allergen. Nonetheless, it might probably take a number of hours for the total spectrum of signs to manifest.

Gentle signs of pineapple allergic reactions, reminiscent of pores and skin rashes, hives, and breakouts, can final anyplace from a few days to over per week. In extreme circumstances when an allergy to pineapple lasts longer than per week, searching for medical consideration is suggested.

Pineapple Allergy Signs & Reactions

If you’re allergic to pineapple, chances are you’ll expertise a bunch of pineapple allergy signs after consuming the fruit or coming into contact with it. These signs and reactions can vary from gentle to extreme, and in some circumstances, may even be life-threatening.

Constipation

You probably have a pineapple allergy, chances are you’ll expertise constipation as considered one of your signs. This may be attributable to the physique’s response to the pineapple proteins, which might intrude with regular digestion.

Diarrhea

One of the crucial widespread signs of pineapple allergy is diarrhea, which might result in dehydration and different critical well being issues.

Flushing of the Face

Some folks might expertise flushing of the face, or a dramatic shift in shade or redness, after consuming pineapple. Typically related to feverish signs, this is because of pineapple’s compound bromelain which acts as an irritant to the pores and skin. Should you expertise this symptom, you must keep away from consuming pineapple or another meals that include bromelain.

Itching or Swelling Across the Mouth or Throat

Itching or swelling across the mouth or throat is the most typical Pineapple allergy symptom that may final for a number of hours.

Hives or Welts on the Pores and skin

Should you come into contact with pineapple and develop hives or welts in your pores and skin, it’s possible you’re allergic to the fruit. This response can happen anyplace from three hours to a couple days after contact, and signs can final one to 3 weeks.

Purple, Watery Eyes

Allergy signs to pineapple could cause pink, watery eyes in some people. That is largely attributed to the bromelain present in pineapple, which has been proven to annoy the eyes.

Extreme Signs

In additional extreme circumstances, a pineapple allergy could cause anaphylaxis. This can be a doubtlessly life-threatening response that may happen inside minutes of publicity to the allergen. Signs of anaphylaxis embrace:

  • Problem respiratory
  • Swelling of the throat or tongue
  • Wheezing
  • Confusion and nervousness
  • Dizziness
  • Lightheadedness
  • Lack of consciousness
  • Speedy heartbeat

Cross-Reactivity When Allergic to Pineapple

If you’re allergic to pineapple, you may additionally be allergic to different fruits in the identical household. This is because of an incidence often called cross-reactivity. Cross-reactivity happens when your physique interprets one substance for one more. On this case, your physique sees the proteins in different fruits for the proteins in pineapple. In consequence, you will have an allergic response to those different fruits although you aren’t really allergic to them.

The excellent news is that cross-reactivity is often not as extreme. Chances are you’ll solely expertise gentle signs, reminiscent of itching or hives. In uncommon circumstances, nonetheless, pineapple allergy cross-reactivity can result in a life-threatening response often called anaphylaxis. Should you expertise any signs of anaphylaxis, reminiscent of issue respiratory or swelling of the face, you must search medical consideration instantly.

The fruits which are recognized to cross-react with pineapple embrace apricot, avocado, banana, cherry, chestnut, grape, kiwi, papaya, ardour fruit, and peaches. If you’re allergic to pineapple, it’s best to keep away from or intently monitor your consumption of those different fruits as effectively.

Pineapple Allergy & Latex-Fruit Syndrome

You probably have a pineapple allergy, it could be because of the latex current within the fruit. This is called latex-fruit syndrome and it’s additionally the first cause why pineapple has so many cross-reactive meals that produce related allergy signs.4

A number of the different fruits related to the latex-fruit syndrome are kiwi, mangoes, ardour fruits, figs, avocados, bananas, chestnuts, soy, and strawberries. So if you’re allergic to pineapples, there’s a higher probability that you could be be allergic to a few of these different fruits.

Signs of this explicit syndrome usually embrace itching, swelling, and issue respiratory. Should you expertise these signs after consuming pineapple, it’s essential to get examined or seek the advice of a certified doctor or allergist for analysis and therapy.

What About Pineapple Intolerance or Sensitivity?

You probably have abdomen discomfort or gentle signs after consuming or coming into contact with pineapple, it could be as a result of meals intolerance. That is very completely different from a meals allergy from a organic perspective, as an allergy is a selected IgE immune system response. With an intolerance or a sensitivity which might embrace a selected IgG response, the signs might be  digestive, pores and skin, complications, low temper or low vitality and may develop over a number of hours after consuming pineapple.

Frequent signs of pineapple intolerance or sensitivity embrace abdomen ache, nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, complications, and low vitality. Should you expertise any of those signs after consuming pineapple, it’s greatest to keep away from the fruit or restrict your consumption. Utilizing a lab accredited check equipment can determine pineapple sensitivity. [DGH1] 

Pineapple Allergy Take a look at

A pores and skin prick check is without doubt one of the commonest and efficient methods to check for pineapple allergy. A needle is used to prick the pores and skin, after which a drop of pineapple juice is positioned on the pores and skin. If you’re allergic to pineapple, you’ll develop a pink, itchy bump on the web site inside minutes.

The pineapple allergy IgE blood check is one other easy and fast option to check for an allergy to pineapple. This check measures the quantity of allergen-specific IgE antibodies within the blood and can be utilized to substantiate an allergy or assist rule one out. You possibly can have this pineapple allergy check performed in a scientific setting or through the use of a lab-accredited allergy check which might be performed at house and mailed in.

Allergy Therapy Choices & Administration

There are a number of therapy choices for pineapple allergic reactions, together with the usage of antihistamines, corticosteroids, and many others. Let’s focus on all of the therapy choices intimately.

Antihistamines

Antihistamines can assist relieve the signs of pineapple allergy by blocking the motion of histamine, a substance that’s launched by the physique in response to an allergy set off. There are numerous various kinds of antihistamines accessible over-the-counter or on prescription. Some widespread examples embrace Cetirizine, Loratadine, and Diphenhydramine.

Topical Steroids

Topical steroids, which can be found as lotions, ointments, or options, work by lowering irritation and swelling. Essentially the most acceptable kind shall be decided by the severity of the allergic response. For gentle reactions, a low-potency steroid could also be ample. For extra extreme reactions, a higher-potency steroid could also be mandatory.

Epinephrine

Epinephrine is the therapy of selection for extreme pineapple allergy reactions. You probably have a extreme response, you will want to be injected with epinephrine after which taken to the hospital for additional therapy. Epinephrine works by assuaging the signs of anaphylaxis, together with issue respiratory and nausea. You will need to hold your epinephrine auto-injector with you always in case of a extreme response.

Calamine Lotion

Calamine lotion can be utilized to alleviate itch and pores and skin rash attributable to pineapple allergy. This widespread topical cream works by forming a barrier on the pores and skin’s floor, defending it from irritants. It additionally has a cooling impact that helps to assuage the itching sensation.

Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are a kind of remedy that may assist to scale back irritation within the lungs and airways. This will make it simpler so that you can breathe and stop an bronchial asthma assault from occurring. Should you’re allergic to pineapple and have bronchial asthma, your doctor might prescribe a corticosteroid inhaler or nebulizer answer so that you can use in case of an emergency.

Bronchodilators

Bronchodilators are a kind of remedy that may assist relieve signs of bronchial asthma attributable to pineapple allergy by opening up the airways. There are numerous various kinds of bronchodilators accessible, so your doctor will work with you to seek out the one which’s greatest for you.

Ketotifen

Ketotifen is an efficient remedy for treating allergic conjunctivitis (eye irritation) attributable to pineapple allergy. This drugs works by blocking the motion of histamine, a substance within the physique that causes allergic signs. Ketotifen is accessible within the type of an answer and is often used twice each day.

Olopatadine

Olopatadine is an antihistamine that’s used to deal with allergic conjunctivitis. It really works by blocking the motion of histamine, which reduces the signs of allergy. Olopatadine is accessible as an eye fixed drop and must be used as directed by your doctor.

Levocabastine

Levocabastine works by blocking the motion of histamine, which is a substance that your physique produces in response to an allergen. This prevents the signs of allergic conjunctivitis, reminiscent of itching, redness, and watering eyes. Levocabastine is accessible within the type of an answer.

Desensitization Therapy

Desensitization therapy, also called allergy photographs, is a type of long-term immunotherapy. It entails receiving common injections of small quantities of the allergen you’re delicate to, reminiscent of pineapple. Over time, this helps your physique construct up a tolerance to the allergen and reduces your signs.

Allergy photographs are often given as soon as per week for a number of months, after which the frequency is steadily decreased over the subsequent few years. Your entire technique of desensitization can take anyplace between 3 to five years.

Takeaway

Think about spending your life avoiding one of the vital widespread fruits on the earth. That’s the fact for these with a pineapple allergy. Whereas uncommon, this allergy could cause critical signs that may be extremely detrimental to a person’s well-being.

Should you assume chances are you’ll be delicate to pineapple, it’s essential to hunt medical recommendation or get examined. One answer is an at-home check equipment that appears at pineapple sensitivity from YorkTest. Alternatively, an allergist can carry out pores and skin prick exams or blood exams to find out whether or not you’re allergic to pineapple.

Should you’re discovered to be allergic, an skilled medical skilled can give you steerage on methods to keep away from pineapple, its cross-reactive meals, and handle your allergy signs. With correct administration, you’ll be able to take pleasure in a secure and wholesome life regardless of your allergy.

References:

1. Baur, X, and G Fruhmann. “Allergic reactions, together with bronchial asthma, to the pineapple protease bromelain following occupational publicity.” Scientific allergy vol. 9,5 (1979): 443-50. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.1979.tb02507.x

2. Reindl, J et al. “IgE reactivity to profilin in pollen-sensitized topics with antagonistic reactions to banana and pineapple.” Worldwide archives of allergy and immunology vol. 128,2 (2002): 105-14. doi:10.1159/000059400

3. Zaimat Beiro, Mina Dimova, Ves Dimov, “A candy revenge”: Pineapple-related antagonistic meals reactions, Journal of Allergy and Scientific Immunology, Quantity 147, Problem 2, Complement, 2021, Web page AB98, ISSN 0091-6749

4. Brehler, R et al. “Latex-fruit syndrome”: frequency of cross-reacting IgE antibodies.” Allergy vol. 52,4 (1997): 404-10. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.1997.tb01019.x

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